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ISSN : 1598-1142(Print)
ISSN : 2383-9066(Online)
Journal of architectural history Vol.27 No.2 pp.63-78

A Study on the Origin and Form of Pagodas in Myanmar

Cheon Deuk-Youm*,Yeom Seung Hoon
* Corresponding Author :


Pagodas in Myanmar can be largely divided into Zedi and Pato. Zedi is a developed form of the early domed pagodas in India and Sri Lanka, which can be found in the introduction of Buddhism in Myanmar and the comparison of early pagodas in India, Sri Lanka and Myanmar. On the other hand, Pato is where statues of Buddha were enshrined, which is why many scholars referred to it as a temple. However, this study proposes that Pato shall be referred to as a temple-style pagoda in a form unique to Myanmar, based on the origin of Pato, definition of pagodas, and Sarira Enrichment Record of Pato. Moreover, it seems more appropriate to name this type of structure Stupa Temple(塔殿) or Stupa Shrine(塔堂) rather than a Buddhist temple(佛殿) or Buddhist shrine(佛堂) for clear distinction. Pato, or temple-style pagodas, has a Śikhara-style structure at the center like Ananda Pato upon entering the Pagan (Bagan) kingdom period, on which Zedi-style structures are built. As a result of examining the integration of various Buddhist schools and religions focused on Theravada during the period of King Anawrahta and King Kyanzittha, the Śikhara-style structure is a symbolic representation of the fact that Theravada embraced Hinduism. The common features shared by pagodas in Myanmar are the centrality of place and the verticality of yǎngtiān (looking up to the sky) in terms of shape. All temples are placed at the most important and central space, and their forms represent strong religious yǎngtiān and verticality. These are the features that stand out most among various pagodas in Buddhist countries.

미얀마 불탑의 기원과 형식 유래에 대한 고찰

천득염*, 염승훈
전남대학교 건축학부 교수, 전남대학교 대학원 박사학위 과정